Marine otters, Lontra felina , are found along the Pacific Coast from northern Peru south along the coast of Chile to the southern tip of South America. Lontra felina is also found in isolated populations in Argentina.
(Brack Egg, 1978; Brownell, 1978; Cabrera, 1957)
Lontra felina is the only species of the genus Lontra that is found exclusively in marine habitats. Generally, marine otters inhabit areas with strong winds, heavy seas, and a high diversity of rock fishes, molluscs, and crustaceans. Lontra felina prefers to occupy areas with rocky outcroppings (often with caves high above the water and tunnels connecting the land and water). This species spendsmost of its time in the water, but does use the rocky shore areas in which it resides, especially during the breeding season.
"Outcroppings with large rocks contain more caves, harbor more prey, and offer better protection from predators" (Lariviere, 1998).
Perhaps because of their preference for rocky shores, marine otters have never been found along the sandy beaches of the Atlantic Patagonian coasts.
(Ostfeld et al., 1989; Castilla and Bahamondes, 1979; Lariviere, 1998)
Lontra felina, otherwise known as marine otters or sea cats, is the smallest and most distinct species of the genus Lontra. The average total length of L. felina is 900 mm. The coat is dark on the back and on the sides, and paler ventrally. Marine otters have a short tail and fully webbed feet. They also have large vibrissae, stiff whisker-like hairs above the upper lip and at the corners of the mouth.
(Harris, 1968; van Zyll de Jong, 1972; Redford and Eisenberg, 1992; Lariviere, 1998)
Lontra felina is most likely a monogamous species. Mating typically occurs during December or January.
After a gestation period of 60 to 65 days, parturition usually occurs from January to March. It takes place in a den or on shore between rocky outcroppings and vegetation. The litter size varies from two to four young, with two being observed most frequently.
Young marine otters remain with their parents for approximately ten months. Adults transport their young by carrying them in their mouths or resting the young on their bellies as they swim on their backs. Both adults in the monogamous pair bring prey back to the den to feed their young.
(Ostfeld et al., 1989; Housse, 1953; Lariviere, 1998)
When not breeding, marine otters are mostly solitary animals,. When found in groups, the group size is seldom more than two to three individuals. Activity of L. felina is generally diurnal, with peaks of activity noted in early morning, mid-afternoon, and evenings. Marine otters are much more agile in the water than on land. However, they have proved to be excellent rock climbers.
When moving in the water, L. felina leaves its body submerged, only exposing its head and some of its back above water. When searching for prey, marine otters can dive to depths of 30 to 40 m. Often, L. felina is observed floating on its back, maintaining its position with the tail. This position allows marine otters to ingest prey items even in high waves. Marine otters often climb out of the water onto the rocky shore and engage in feeding, sunning, grooming, and playing.
Most interactions between marine otters are amicable; however, adults and pairs may show intense aggression when fighting over resources, such as captured prey. These agonistic competitions often involve active fighting and biting, bleeding wounds, and high-pitched squeaking vocalizations.
(Ostfeld et al., 1989; Lariviere, 1998; Housse, 1953; Castilla and Bahamondes, 1979)
The marine otter's diet mainly consists of invertebrates (including crustaceans and molluscs), fish, and occasionally, birds and small mammals. Periodically, fruits are also consumed. Marine otters spend 63 to 70% of their time catching and feeding on prey.
(Ostfeld et al., 1989; Castilla and Bahamondes, 1979; Lariviere, 1998)
Marine otters are often illegally captured and killed for their pelts, which are used for footwear, especially boots. While illegal, harvesting marine otters is a fairly frequent occurrence in Chile, as the potential of being caught and fined is low.
Lontra felina is also sometimes trained, domesticated, and used by fisherman. Young marine otters are easily bottle-fed, and adults seem to adapt well to freshwater ponds and food items given to other domestic animals. Play behavior has also been observed between L. felina and other domesticated animals.
(Macdonald and Mason, 1990; Lariviere, 1998)
Marine otters have been captured and killed for their competition with humans for prey. Fisheries suspect that marine otters cause damage to local fish, shrimp, and bivalve populations.
(Larivier, 1998; Redford and Eisenberg, 1992)
L. felina is classified as endangererd by the IUCN and is listed in CITES in Appendix I. Habitat destruction, pollution, and illegal poaching have resulted in the declining population of this species. The current remaining population is estimated to be less than 1000 individuals.
(Castilla and Bahamondes, 1979; Lariviere, 1998)
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Melissa Savage (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
active at dawn and dusk
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. An aquatic habitat.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
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Brownell, R. 1978. Ecology and conservation of the marin otter L. felina. Otters: Proceedings of the first working meeting of the otter specialist group, 158: 104-106.
Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur:I (Metatheria-Unguiculata-Carnivora). Ciencias Zoologicas, 4: 1-307.
Castilla, J., I. Bahamondes. 1979. Observaciones conductuales y ecologicas sobre Lutra felina en las zonas central y centro-norte de Chile. Archivos de Biologia y Medicina Experimentales, 12: 119-132.
Harris, C. 1968. Otters: a study of the recent Lutrinae. London: Weinfield and Nicolson.
Housse, P. 1953. Animales salvajes de Chile en su clasificacion moderna: su vida y costumbres. Santiago: Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile.
Lariviere, S. 1998. Lontra felina. Mammalian Species, 575: 1-5.
Macdonald, S., C. Mason. 1990. Threats. Otters: an action plan for their conservation, 126: 11-14.
Ostfeld, R., L. Ebensperger, L. Klosterman, J. Castilla. 1989. Foraging, activity budget, and social behavior of the South American marine otter Lutra felina. National Geographic Research, 5: 422-438.
Redford, K., J. Eisenberg. 1992. Mammals of the Neotropics: the Southern Cone. Chicago: The Univeristy of Chicago Press.
van Zyll de Jong, C. 1972. A systematic review of the Nearctic and Neotropical river otters. Life Sciences Contributions, Royal Ontario Museum, 80: 1-104.