is a mosquito that is commonly found in the United States, primarily in the eastern part of the country, from the East Coast to the Texas Panhandle. The highest densities of are found in the southeastern United States.
can be found in many different habitats, depending on its developmental stage. Larvae are found in freshwater aquatic environments, including ponds, swamps, bayous, slow-moving canals, and streams. The larvae seem to be more prevalent in aquatic environments that contain vegetation and in areas that are exposed to sunlight. Although they are most commonly found in clean water, they sometimes occur in heavily polluted water. larvae also can be found in manmade objects that fill with water, such as agricultural ponds and fields, cans, barrels, and old tires.
is a medium-sized, light-brown mosquito. The tips of the wings lack the copper color seen in many other species; instead, the wings are entirely brown and scaly. Females have a body length of about 5 mm and a wing length also about 5 mm. Females have a long proboscis and labella with small black setae; palpi are the same length as the proboscis. The antennae are filiform, and the abdomen is black with many yellow hairs.
Anopheles, the male antennae are more complex than those of the females. males can be identified by their large, plumose antennae that have long, brown hairs with a yellow luster. In males, the last two joints of the palpi are larger, with many long, brown hairs.exhibits sexual dimorphism in terms of its body size and the morphology of its antennae and palpi. Males have a body length of 5.5 mm and a wing length of 4.5 mm. Like most species in the genus
Two characteristics make it fairly easy to distinguish Anopheles species. has broadly rounded wing scales on the proximal end of the cubitus, and the scales on its wings form four distinct dark spots. (Boyd, 1949; Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955; Dyar, 1928; Headlee, 1945)from other
larvae have long, rounded heads with single dorsal hairs that are highly branched. The thorax is rounded, with short branched hairs and hair tufts. Long feathered hairs are present on the first three abdominal segments. The other abdominal segments have shorter hairs that are less branched. Palmate hairs on the second abdominal segment are pigmented.
Larvae in the genus Anopheles can be distinguished from Culex species by the presence or absence of the respiratory siphon located on the posterior end of the body. Anopheles larvae do not have siphons, while Culex larvae have siphons.
develops through four stages in its life cycle, namely egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The egg, larval, and pupal stages occur in aquatic environments. The developmental time in each stage can vary dramatically, depending on the temperature in the environment. Eggs typically hatch after 1 to 3 days; however, hatching can take longer (up to 3 weeks) when temperatures are lower.
has 4 larval instars. The time between the egg to the fourth instar stage is 5 to 15 days, again depending on the environmental temperature.
Metamorphosis from the larval to the adult stage occurs during the pupal stage, which can last 2 to 6 days. The total life cycle from egg to adult takes about 14 to 27 days when the water temperature averages about 23° C. (Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012; Keener, 1945; Rios and Connelly, 2012)
After mating, females seek blood meals so they can provide their eggs with required nutrients. After oviposition,shows no additional parental investment in its young.
An Culex species. If temperatures drop below 12° C, larvae often sink to the bottom of the aquatic habitat and remain there until temperatures increase.larva lies just below the water surface with its body positioned horizontally. It breathes using the palmate hairs on its abdomen, because it does not possess the respiratory siphon evident in
Pupae are active, but they do not feed. They obtain oxygen above the water surface but move down the water column if disturbed.
Adults are most active during dawn and dusk, which is when they feed. During the day, when not feeding or seeking mates,rests in areas that are near the habitats of its host species. These areas may include hollow trees, culverts, homes, and other shaded habitats that allow easy access to blood meals and oviposition sites. Adults typically are solitary and often do not interact except to mate.
In warmer geographic regions, females overwinter in homes or barns; in cooler regions, they overwinter in isolated areas such as caves and storm drains. Females mate before they overwinter; thus, they can oviposit once early in the spring, and they die immediately afterward. (Boyd, 1949; Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955; Horsfall, 1972; Rios and Connelly, 2012)
communicates through distinct, but low-energy, sounds. The sounds they make are so low in energy that, in general, humans cannot hear them. While females produce higher-energy sounds than males, and male sounds are higher in pitch, both sexes seem to use similar sounds to attract mates, alert others to danger, and exhibit aggression. Mosquitoes can produce these sounds while in flight, while at rest by beating their wings, and by rubbing their tarsi against their wings.
As in other mosquito species,finds hosts by detecting odor attractants using its olfactory receptors. It is attracted by carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other odors. may be particularly sensitive to carbon dioxide, as it often bites humans on their heads. Its maxillary palps detect carbon dioxide, while its antennae detect host odors. Researchers suspect that each mosquito species uses different specific odors to locate its hosts; however, not enough data have been collected to rigorously test whether this is true.
larvae feed on organic material (e.g., plant and animal matter) that is suspended on the surface of the water in which the larvae float. Larvae feed on many different aquatic organisms and seem to exhibit no feeding preferences. In general, larvae filter feed on small food items; however, if food particles are too large, larvae may macerate and then consume them. Larvae typically macerate filamentous algae by running the food across their mandibles; they consume the particles that break off. The maximum food particle size increases with each larval instar and ranges from 37 to 131 microns. In their natural habitat, larvae typically feed on detritus, plankton, and filamentous algae. Larvae can be raised in the laboratory when fed yeast, algae, broken hay, or ground dog biscuits.
The feeding patterns of humans, cows, horses, pigs, sheep, dogs, cats, and birds. Scientific observations have revealed mixed results regarding the preferred host of females; host choice appears to depend on the habitat of the mosquito.adults differ according to their sex. To produce eggs, females must feed on blood. Female mouthparts are adapted for solenophagy, i.e., feeding directly from blood vessels. uses a powerful anticoagulant, effective at 1:10,000 or greater dilutions, to assist in feeding. This anticoagulant is introduced into the blood of the host before the mosquito begins to feed; the anticoagulant prevents the blood from solidifying in the mosquito. Females feed on many animals, including
males and females feed on the sugars and nectar of many different plant species. Laboratory experiments indicate that males and females can be maintained with glucose, honey, or other sugary syrups.
Feeding times can vary depending on the host species and the environmental conditions. Adults typically feed from dusk until sunrise; however, they will feed during the day if hosts are readily available. (Boyd, 1949; Horsfall, 1972; Keener, 1945; Metcalf, 1945; Rios and Connelly, 2012)
Mosquito larvae and pupae are eaten by carnivorous insects, fish, and aquatic fowl. When water levels decrease and larvae and pupae become stranded on land, the mosquitoes are eaten by insects such as ants and shore bugs. (Horsfall, 1972)
Adult humans, cows, horses, pigs, sheep, dogs, cats, and birds. The females act as a vector for various diseases. is the primary vector of malaria in the United States, as it is a competent vector of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae. These mosquitoes can transmit other important human and livestock diseases, such as West Nile virus, Cache Valley virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus. is a common vector of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). It transmits at least three Plasmodium species to birds, although the rate of infection has not been determined.females are temporary ectoparasites of many vertebrates, including
Given the available information about predation on other mosquito species, birds and bats likely feed on adults, while many aquatic insects, fish, ducks, ants, and shore bugs likely feed on larvae and pupae. (Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012; Hoffmann, et al., 2013; Horsfall, 1972; Keener, 1945)probably is a common source of food for other animals. Many species of
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
The largest and most studied negative effect of Plasmodium falciparum, along with the less pathogenic strains, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae. Malaria has not been a major problem in the United States since the 1940s. Since 1957, 63 outbreaks have occurred in the United States, causing 156 cases that resulted from mosquito transmission. About 1,500 cases of malaria are reported in the United States each year. Due to increased global travel and the common occurrence of in the United States, the potential exists for more widespread and severe outbreaks of malaria in the U.S.on humans is its role as the primary vector of malaria in the United States. is the primary vector of the most pathogenic agent of malaria,
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with state and local health departments, carefully monitor cases of malaria and have enacted control measures to combat the infectious disease. ("Locally Acquired Mosquito-Transmitted Malaria: A Guide for Investigations in the United States", 2006; Boyd, 1949; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012; Headlee, 1945; Rios and Connelly, 2012)
sheep, along with other livestock, such as cows, horses, and small ruminants. Whether this mosquito is the primary vector for Cache Valley virus in the U.S. remains unknown.is a vector for other diseases, including Cache Valley virus. The disease rarely is diagnosed in humans; infections primarily afflict
The mosquito also carries West Nile virus, which can cause death in humans and other animals, including dogs, cats, horses, and birds. In 2009, 663 cases of West Nile virus were reported in the United States, with 30 cases resulting in death.
Dirofilaria immitis, which is the agent that causes heartworm in dogs and cats. This disease can seriously harm household pets, and a great deal of money is spent on its prevention and treatment.also is a common vector of
is common throughout its wide geographic range, and its population size is not likely to decline in the near future. Any efforts to control populations focus solely on reducing their numbers, because the mosquitoes are disease vectors.
Paul Glyshaw (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Elizabeth Wason (author, editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Heidi Liere (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Marino (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Rachelle Sterling (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries.
an animal that mainly eats meat
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
(as keyword in perception channel section) This animal has a special ability to detect heat from other organisms in its environment.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton; mainly unicellular algae. (Compare to zooplankton.)
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
an animal that mainly eats blood
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Locally Acquired Mosquito-Transmitted Malaria: A Guide for Investigations in the United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55 (No. RR-13): 1-9. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. Accessed April 01, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5513.pdf.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. The Mosquitoes of the United States. Bulletin Number 25. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1900. Accessed February 17, 2010 at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015069645607.
Boyd, M. 1949. Malariology: a Comprehensive Survey of All Aspects of This Group of Diseases from a Global Standpoint, Volume II. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company. Accessed February 17, 2010 at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015019376519.
Campbell, G., J. Mataczynski, E. Reisdorf, J. Powell, D. Martin, A. Lambert, T. Haupt, J. Davis, R. Lanciotti. 2006. Second Human Case of Cache Valley Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12/5: 854-856. Accessed June 10, 2013 at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/5/pdfs/05-1625.pdf.
Carpenter, S., W. LaCasse. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). Berkeley: University of California Press. Accessed June 10, 2013 at http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/files/pdfs/016800-0.pdf.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012. "Anopheles Mosquitoes" (On-line). CDC: Malaria. Accessed February 24, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/mosquitoes/.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. "CDC: West Nile Virus homepage" (On-line). Accessed April 01, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm.
Dekker, T., W. Takken, B. Knols, E. Bouman, S. Laak, A. Bever, P. Huisman. 1998. Selection of biting sites on a human host by Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 87: 295-300.
Enserink, M. 2002. What Mosquitoes Want: Secrets of Host Attraction. Science, 298/5591: 90-92.
Eyles, D., C. Sabrosky, J. Russell. 1945. Long-Range Dispersal of Public Health Reports, 60/43: 1265-1273. Accessed June 10, 2013 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1976088/pdf/pubhealthreporig02900-0001.pdf..
Foote, R., D. Cook. 1959. Mosquitoes of Medical Importance. Washington: Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Accessed February 17, 2010 at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015003812107.
Headlee, T. 1945. The Mosquitoes of New Jersey and Their Control. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Accessed June 10, 2013 at http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/files/pdfs/059799-0.pdf.
Hoffmann, A., P. Dorniak, J. Filant, K. Dunlap, F. Bazer, A. de la Concha-Bermejillo, C. Welsh, P. Varner, J. Edwards. 2013. Ovine Fetal Immune Response to Cache Valley Virus Infection. Journal of Virology, 87/10: 5586-5592.
Horsfall, W. 1972. Mosquitoes: Their Bionomics and Relation to Disease. New York: Hafner Publishing Company.
Howard, L. 1900. Notes on the Mosquitoes of the United States: Giving some account of their structure and biology, with remarks on remedies. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology Bulletin, 25: 5-70. Accessed February 17, 2010 at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015069645607.
Kahn, M., W. Celestin, W. Offenhauser. 1945. Recording of Sounds Produced by Certain Disease-Carrying Mosquitoes. Science, 101/2622: 335-336.
Keener, G. 1945. Detailed Observations on the Life History of The Journal of the National Malaria Society, 4/3: 263-270..
Metcalf, R. 1945. The physiology of the salivary glands of The Journal of the National Malaria Society, 4/3: 271-278..
Nayar, J., C. Connelly. 2011. "Mosquito-borne DogHeartworm Disease (ENY-628)" (On-line). Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Accessed March 25, 2010 at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/MG/MG10000.pdf.
Rios, L., C. Connelly. 2012. "Common malaria Mosquito Insecta: Diptera: Culicidera) (EENY-491)" (On-line). Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Accessed February 10, 2010 at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN79100.pdf.Say (