Columbia, Venezuala, to the Amazonian region of Peru and Brazil (Nowak, 1997; Murcielagos, 1982).
Venezualan specimens were collected in many different habitats, but mostly in moist, open areas of the forest (Nowak, 1997). One specimen was found in cavity in the ground (Murcielagos, 1982). Venezuelan samples were taken at up to 2240 m (Eisenberg, 1989).
Sphaeronycteris toxophyllum has a total length of approximately 56-58 mm and a forearm length of about 40 mm. There is no external tail and the dorsum is cinnamon brown. The underparts are brownish white with individual hairs on the back whitish. The side of the face has fleshy outgrowths. A hornlike growth on the nose is larger on males than on females. Under the chin is a fold of skin that can be rolled over the face. The bat is similar in appearance to Centurio but with less extreme facial outgrowths and a third lower molar (Nowak, 1997).
There is no literature regarding the behavior of this species.
Unknown food habits, but the stomach contents of an examined specimen resembled yellowish fruit pulp (Murcielagos, 1982).
Not much is known, but because they are frugivores it might be assumed that they disperse some fruit seeds.
S. toxophyllum is not listed on either the IUCN or U.S. ESA sites.
This species has not been widely seen nor studied so there is very little literature on it.
Jordan Zylstra (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Ondrej Podlaha (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
"CITES" (On-line). Accessed November 19, 2001 at http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/fauna.shtml.
1982. "Murcielagos De Venezuela II: Phyllostomidae-Stenodermatinae" (On-line). Accessed 8 October, 2001 at http://www.redpav-fpolar.info.ve/fagro/v12_34/v124m009.html.
Eisenberg, J. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nowak, R. 1997. "Walker's Mammals of the World Online 5.1" (On-line). Accessed 8 October, 2001 at http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers_mammals_of_the_world/chiroptera/chiroptera.phyllostomidae.sphaeronycteris.html.