Esox luciusAmerican pike(Also: Common pike; Great Lakes pike; Great northern pickerel; Jackfish)

Geographic Range

Esox lucius are native to North America and Eurasia. They are found from Labrador west to Alaska, south to Pennsylvannia, Missouri and Nebraska. In Europe they are found throughout northern and western Europe, south throughout Spain and east to Siberia.


Esox lucius are found in almost every type of freshwater, from cold deep lakes, to warm shallow ponds, to muddy rivers. Having a broad range of tolerances for water temperature, clarity and oxygen content allows E. lucius to be "one of the most adaptable freshwater species" (Steinberg, 1992, pg. 20).

  • Aquatic Biomes
  • lakes and ponds
  • rivers and streams

Physical Description

Northern pike average 46-51 cm (18-20 inches) in length. They can be identified by their single dorsal fin and light-colored spots along their dark body. They are also recognized by scales that cover their entire cheek and the upper half of their gill covers. Their close relative, the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), have scales covering only the upper half of their cheek and gill covers. The sides of E. lucius vary from dark shades of green to olive green to brown, with 7 to 9 rows of yellowish, bean-shaped spots. The underside is white to cream-colored.

  • Range mass
    0.5 to 1.4 kg
    1.10 to 3.08 lb


Northern pike are considered random spawners not nest builders. Spawning occurs in the shallows when the water temperature reaches 4-7 degress Celsius (40-45 degrees Fahrenheit). Spawning lasts for 5 to 10 days after which the female leaves. Males remain in the spawning area for several weeks, but do not protect the eggs. At this stage the eggs are vulnerable to predators. The eggs that do survive hatch in about 2 weeks. With their insatiable eating habits young E. lucius grow rapidly in both length and weight. Males become sexually mature at 2-3 years-old and females at 3-4 years-old.

  • Breeding season
    Spawning occurs in the spring.
  • Average time to hatching
    2 weeks
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    3-4 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    Sex: female
    1116 days
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    2-3 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    Sex: male
    889 days



Esox lucius are aggressive, solitary fish. They are typically lurkers, but are able to attack quickly. Their eyes are highly movable and are able to see in practically any direction. This is extremely important in tracking their prey. Considerd "sprint predators", E. lucius hide in some type of cover, cocked in an "S" position, ready to strike.

Communication and Perception

Food Habits

Esox lucius are a carnivorous fish. Equipped with sharp teeth and very complex skull and jaw structures they are predators of smaller fish, frogs, crayfish, small mammals and birds.

  • Animal Foods
  • birds
  • mammals
  • amphibians
  • fish
  • aquatic crustaceans

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Esox lucius is a prized game fish throughout its range and is a commercial food fish in eastern Europe.

  • Positive Impacts
  • food

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no negative effects of northern pike on humans.

Conservation Status

Esox lucius is not currently threatened by extinction. The Departments of Natural Resources in states where they occur keep a close watch on population levels and can augment populations by stocking streams with Esox lucius raised in hatcheries.


Courtney Egan (editor).

Ryan Lefevre (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.



living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map


living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

World Map

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.


an animal that mainly eats meat


uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

external fertilization

fertilization takes place outside the female's body


union of egg and spermatozoan


A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.


a distribution that more or less circles the Arctic, so occurring in both the Nearctic and Palearctic biogeographic regions.

World Map

Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia.


having the capacity to move from one place to another.


specialized for swimming

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.


reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.


an animal that mainly eats fish


lives alone


uses touch to communicate


Encyclopedia of Fishing 1994. Dorling Kindersley. New York.

Evawoff, Vlad 1980. The Freshwater Fisherman's Bible. Doubleday and Co.

Klein, Stanley 1983. Encylopedia of North American Wildlife. Facts on File Inc.

Sternberg, Dick 1992. Northern Pike and Muskie. CY DeCrosse Inc.