Diadema antillarum is found in the shallow waters of the Atlantic Ocean, in the Bahamas, and the Western Atlantic from eastern Florida to Brazil. In the Eastern Atlantic D. antillarum is found in Madeira, the Gulf of Guinea, and the Canary, Cape Verde, and Annabon islands. (Hendler, et al., 1995)
Diadema antillarum is a regular (round) urchin, and displays the pentamerism of echinoderms. Mature individuals of D. antillarum can reach up to 500 mm in diameter. Diadema antillarum has thin spines that range from 300-400 mm in length and can be up to four times the diameter of the test (skeleton formed inside the body). The spines are thin, hollow, and break easily. The test is rigid and there is a reduced amount of soft tissue in the body wall as compared to other species in the family Diadematidae.
The test and spines of a mature adult are typically black, but lighter colored spines may be intermixed, and in rare cases the urchin will be almost entirely white. The spines of juveniles are always banded with black and white. When the urchin dies, the spines falls off and the test remains.
At the base of the urchin are branched tentacles called tube feet, which help in gathering food, respiration, locomotion, and mucous production. (Banister and Campbell, 1985; Nichols and Cooke, 1971; Hendler, et al., 1995)
The fertilized egg has two forms: the blastula and the gastrula. These swim close to the surface of the water with the aid of cilia, and can be dispersed quite far, depending on currents. These larvae are known as the echinopluteus, and can remain in the larval stage for an average of 4-6 weeks. As the larvae mature, a vestibule is created in what will be the oral side of the urchin. Tentacles grow from this opening, on which suction areas eventually emerge. When the tentacles have suckers, they are primary poda, which serve as locomotive tools when the larva sinks to the ocean floor. At this point the skeletal plates begin to develop. When the 5 ambulical plates are developed and the terminal plate lies next to the genital plates, the urchin is fully developed, though it will continue to grow for the rest of its life. (Grzimek, 1972)
Some populations of D. antillarum have been observed to congregate during their spawning season. There is no mating of individuals as fertilization and gestation occur in the open water. (Grzimek, 1972)
The spawning of D. antillarum appears to be connected to the lunar calendar. During the summer season, the egg and sperm are released once during each lunar month. This spawning period is dependant upon temperature; populations in different hemispheres may spawn at different times depending on when the warm season occurs.
The egg and sperm are released into the water where they are fertilized and develop into the larval echinopluteus. Egg size has also been observed to change during the month. Spawning occurs when the eggs are largest. (Anonymous, 1967; Grzimek, 1972; Hendler, et al., 1995)
There is no parental involvement post-spawning.
The lifespan of D. antillarum is closely related to temperatures and food availability. Populations in warmer climates tend to have a quicker rate of development and shorter lifespan than those in colder climates. (Grzimek, 1972)
Extremely sensitive to light, D. antillarum remains in darker areas, like crevices in the reef, during the day, and emerges at night to feed. Groups of individuals can be found in open areas, and densities can reach up to 20 per square meter. This group size corresponds to the abundance of predators in the area.
A very active urchin, D. antillarum has a high reactivity and sensitivity to changes in light and water disturbances. The urchin will wave its spines in the direction of the upsetting occurence, and retreat to sheltered areas quickly, if need be. (Banister and Campbell, 1985; Hendler, et al., 1995)
Diadema antillarum has a highly developed light sensitivity. When a shadow appears, the urchin waves its spines in the direction of the shadow and moves away from the shadow, often into a more protected area. In this sense, D. antillarum can almost 'see' predators. It is not known how individuals communicate with each other to aggregate. (Waller, 1996)
The spines of Diadema antillarum are brittle and will fragmentize if wounded. The pieces are difficult to remove, and often cause infections as they carry bacteria. The mucous coating of the spines, normally used to kill organisms that live in the spines, carries a mild poison that also aids in deterring smaller predators. Diadema antillarum has been observed to gather in groups as an added protection. (Carson, 1955; Grzimek, 1972; Hendler, et al., 1995; Waller, 1996)
Diadema antillarum feeds on the algal turf of the coral reefs. The algal turf grows rapidly, and without the urchin's control, can destroy the reefs. Diadema antillarum clears the reefs, making room for coral larvae to settle and grow. However, the urchin actually wears away at the calcium carbonate of the reef, too. (Hendler, et al., 1995)
The gonads of sea urchins are considered a delicacy in many coastal regions, but D. antillarum is not one of the more preferred species.
The spines of D. antillarum are very sharp and can easily pierce skin, shoes, and wetsuits. Contact with a spine is not extremely painful, but the shattering of the spine leaves organic material in the wound that can cause intensely painful infections. The poisonous mucous seems to have very little effect on humans. (Carson, 1955; Hendler, et al., 1995)
In 1983 D. antillarum experienced a massive die-off all across the Caribbean; some areas lost up to 97% of mature individuals. The die-off is thought to be due to a water-borne pathogen that has not yet been identified. The great reduction of D. antillarum in the reefs caused an extreme increase in the algal cover, and thus a reduction of larval coral settlement. Microalgae has become more abundant in the time since the die-off; the greater amount of algae allows the reefs to support a greater number of herbivorous fish, which can result in more damage to the reefs. (Bruckner and Bruckner, 1998; Hendler, et al., 1995)
Renee Sherman Mulcrone (editor).
Erin Puckett (author), Southwestern University, Stephanie Fabritius (editor), Southwestern University.
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
generates and uses light to communicate
a form of body symmetry in which the parts of an animal are arranged concentrically around a central oral/aboral axis and more than one imaginary plane through this axis results in halves that are mirror-images of each other. Examples are cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish, anemones, and corals).
structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps (Class Anthozoa). Coral reefs are found in warm, shallow oceans with low nutrient availability. They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. The polyps live only on the reef surface. Because they depend on symbiotic photosynthetic algae, zooxanthellae, they cannot live where light does not penetrate.
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
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