These raven tracks show the structure of the foot. The bottom of the foot has a granular or pebbly texture, similar to that of turkeys and other birds. This probably gives them some traction for gripping branches. Their toes have joints and are very flexible to allow them to grip things. The middle toe doesn't point exactly forward. It points inward slightly.
Kim Cabrera (photographer; copyright holder; identification)
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Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2013. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed at http://animaldiversity.org.
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