Sexual reproduction with external fertilization is the normal means of reproduction for (Lawrence, 1987). Since fertilization is external and in an aquatic environment, it is not necessary for the male to make an effort to mate with the female. Each gender, at the appropriate time, just releases the gametes corresponding to its sex, and that is all that is necessary. The males and females do not interact with one another physically to reproduce. The male to female sex ratio does not deviate much from the normal 1:1 ratio. In individuals with horizontal diameters ranging from 80-100 mm, the ratio is 1:1.5. In the smaller individuals, the ratio is 1:1.
Since external fertilization takes place, the egg, once fertilized, could be miles away from one of the two parent urchins. Therefore, parental care is not observed.
The lifespan of (Moore, 1966)in most cases, is two to three years. Environmental changes, predators, and other external causes can reduce the lifespan of individuals. On the other hand, if an individual is held in captivity with optimum conditions at all times, the lifespan of that individual is likely to increase slightly.
The most interesting and most studied aspect of the behavior ofdeals with phototaxis. does not like light, and responds accordingly by a covering reaction. Using its tube feet, an individual of the species takes up a fragment of eel grass, shell gravel, algae, or some other opaque object, and it "masks" its upper surface from excess light with this fragment.
Behavior in response to predation involves the globiferous pedicellariae. Varying in position on the either large or small pedicellariae are both glandular tissue and valves with poison glands. Aiding in this defense mechanism, the heads of the pedicellariae automise after they have been used. When this happens, it causes a chain reaction with the pedicellariae of other individuals in the area, and they automise as well. (Moore, 1966; Yoshida, 1966)
communicates with other individuals when predators are around. Varying in position on the either large or small pedicellariae are both glandular tissue and valves with poison glands. The heads of the pedicellariae automise after they have been used. When this happens, it causes a chain reaction with the pedicellariae of other individuals in the area, and they automise as well.
is an omnivore, depending upon environmental conditions. Foods eaten include algae, aquatic grasses, plants and small organisms in the environment.
For the urchin to feed, there must be a strong flow of water over it. Temperature changes have an effect on feeding. Higher summer temperatures lead to a general slight feeding in the species, whereas in lower temperatures, the feeding rate increases. An important anatomical aspect of feeding is the lantern mechanism. This mechanism provides a way for (Anderson, 1966; Moore, 1966)to bite off and ingest food.
does not really play any major roles in the ecosystem. Part of the food chain, it keeps the underwater environment diverse.
No information found for this subject.
Renee Sherman Mulcrone (editor).
Catherine Warlick (author), Southwestern University, Stephanie Fabritius (editor), Southwestern University.
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. An aquatic habitat.
seaweed. Algae that are large and photosynthetic.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
a form of body symmetry in which the parts of an animal are arranged concentrically around a central oral/aboral axis and more than one imaginary plane through this axis results in halves that are mirror-images of each other. Examples are cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish, anemones, and corals).
structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps (Class Anthozoa). Coral reefs are found in warm, shallow oceans with low nutrient availability. They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. The polyps live only on the reef surface. Because they depend on symbiotic photosynthetic algae, zooxanthellae, they cannot live where light does not penetrate.
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
Alender, C., F. Russell. 1966. Pharmacology. Pp. 536-537 in R Boolootian, ed. Physiology of Echinodermata. New York: Interscience Publishers.
Anderson, J. 1966. Aspects of Nutritional Physiology. Pp. 335-336 in R Boolootian, ed. Physiology of Echinodermata. New York: Interscience Publishers.
Hendler, G., J. Miller, D. Pawson, P. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Lawrence, J. 1987. A Functional Biology of Echinoderms. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Moore, H. 1966. Ecology of Echinoids. Pp. 74-82 in R Boolootian, ed. Physiology of Echinodermata. New York: Interscience Publishers.
Stearns, L. 1974. Sea Urchin Development: Cellular and Molecular Aspects. Stroudsberg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Inc..
Yoshida, M. 1966. Photosensitivity. Pp. 450 in R Boolootian, ed. Physiology of Echinodermata. New York: Interscience Publishers.