range from the West Indies to Florida. (Breder, 1929)
are found in the tropical coral reefs of the Caribbean and are, therefore, restricted to relatively shallow water (Boschung, 1983).
have four rows of scales on their cheeks. They have no longitudinal band on their head or body, but a red band near the edge of the caudal fin is present (Breder, 1929). have teeth that form beak-like plates, similar to parrots. The lower plate is hidden by the upper plate when their mouth is closed. can be identified by a long, single dorsal fin and a truncated caudal fin (Boschung, 1983). exhibit sexual dimorphism, females are a drab bluish-brown, with a pale band running along the lower side of the fish, males are green-blue, with scales that have yellow centers and distinct yellow lines running from the mouth to the eye (Wheeler, 1975). young have two white stripes and a white belly (Smith, 1997).
reproduce sexually with external fertilization. Breeding occurs throughout the year, with most activity in the mornings. Their breeding system is characterized as harem polygyny: one male mates with multiple females. The supermale in the group is in a terminal phase, where he is brightly colored. The supermale spawns with an individual female by first swimming in circles around the females and then as they increase their speed and tighten their circles the female joins the supermale. At this time the gametes are released into the water (Clavijo, 1983). Other males spawn with females in groups (Smith, 1997). have both an egg and a larval stage and a primary and a terminal phase where they change colors (Lowe-McConnell, 1987).
are mostly found in small schools of 3 - 4 females and a supermale. They are not strong swimmers so they scull themselves along with their pectoral fins (Lythgoe, 1992). are only active during the day. During the night they find a crevice to sleep in and then they secrete a mucous envelope around themselves for protection (Wheeler, 1975).
are active diurnal herbivores. They scrape algae, preferably turf algae, that is on flat surfaces and coral from coral reefs with their unique beak (Bruggemann, 1994). crushes the coral and algae mixture finely in the pharyngeal mill, and the indigestible sand is excreted (Wheeler, 1975). It has also been found that feeds on sponges (Dunlap, 1998).
are a large contributor to the production of sand through their digestion of corals. They are also believed to be a major reef attraction (Wheeler, 1975).
have become one of the most important biological factors in the erosion of coral reefs. They also effect the distribution and abundance of Caribbean sponges by feeding on them (Dunlap, 1998). The decrease of coral reefs and sponges have caused a decrease in the tourist industry's revenues (Wheeler, 1975).
are not endangered.
Cynthia Wilson (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps (Class Anthozoa). Coral reefs are found in warm, shallow oceans with low nutrient availability. They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. The polyps live only on the reef surface. Because they depend on symbiotic photosynthetic algae, zooxanthellae, they cannot live where light does not penetrate.
uses touch to communicate
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Breder, C. 1929. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Bruggemann, J. 1994. Comparative analysis of foraging and habitat use by the sympatric Caribbean parrotfish Scarus vetula and Sparisoma viride (Scaridae).. Marine Ecology, 112: 51-66.
Clavijo, I. 1983. Pair spawing and formation of a lek-like mating system in the parrotfish Scarus vetula.. Copeia: 253-256.
Dunlap,, M., J. Pawlik. 1998. Spongivory by parrotfish in Florida mangrove and reef habitats.. Marine Ecology, 19: 325-337.
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Wheeler, A. 1975. Fishes of the World: An Illustrated Dictionary. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc..