Gabon bushbabies are found mainly between the Sanaga and Ogooue Rivers in Cameroon, as well as the Rio Muni mainland region of Equatorial Guinea. They have also been recorded south of the Ogooue River in Gabon. (Grubb, et al., 2003)
Gabon bushbabies occupy tropical forests with high annual rainfall. Forest level occupation is unknown, although they are likely to be found in mid to low forest canopy levels because of their dietary niche. Gabon receives an average annual rainfall of 170 cm, most of which falls over only a third of the year. Two rainy seasons between September and December and March to June account for this rainfall. Temperatures range from a maximum of around 30 degrees C to a minimum of around 20 degrees C (Charles-Dominique, 1977a). The elevation of the documented occupation areas of Gabon range from 150 to 1000 m (Willamowius, 2008). Due to lower human populations in Gabon, the country is not thought to lose a large proportion of its forests due to deforestation each year (Barnes, 2008). (Barnes, 2008; Charles-Dominique, 1977a; Willamowius, 1999)
Gabon bushbabies are small primates with long, fully furred tails and large ears (Kingdon, 2004). The tail is about 25.4 cm in length and the average body length is 21.6 cm (Grzimek et al., 2005). The closest relative of G. gabonensis is Galago alleni. Galago gabonensis has been described as browner in color than Galago alleni (Groves, 1989). Like other primates, Gabon bushbabies have opposable thumbs that can be used for gripping branches. They are nocturnal and have large eyes with a reflective tapetum lucidum. This improves vision in low-light conditions and is common among nocturnal carnivorous species (Gron 2008). Although ear morphology has not been specifically described in Gabon bushbabies, other bushbabies have ears that can move independently of one another and that are the largest relative to their body size among primates (Ankel-Simons, 2007). These extremely large and mobile ears likely aid G. gabonensis in hunting for insects. (Ankel-Simons, 2007; Gron, 2008; Groves, 1989)
Female Gabon bushbabies are likely capable of two birth seasons per year, based on the presence of visible estrus swellings. Females in other species of Galago mate with more than one male during a single estrus cycle (Pullen et al., 2002), it is possible that Gabon bushbabies do as well. Galago moholi copulations in the wild last on average 9 minutes, with 2 to 5 prolonged mounts punctuated with rest and grooming (Pullen et al., 2002). (Pullen, et al., 2000)
Although gestation length could not be found in the primary literature for Gabon bushbabies, gestation length in other Galago species can range from 111 days to 142 days (Charles-Dominique, 1977a), with smaller species exhibiting shorter gestational lengths. Since Gabon bushbabies are comparatively large, they are likely to have gestation lengths that fall along the longer end of the spectrum and birth masses towards the higher end of the range. Among Galago species, young develop fur between 2 and 3 weeks of age (Charles-Dominique, 1977a). Most Galago species give birth several times a year, with births often peaking at times when fruits and insects are abundant. Other aspects of their reproduction may be similar to their close relative, Galago alleni. (Charles-Dominique, 1977a)
Female bushbabies "park" their infants on tree branches while they forage nearby. This parking sometimes lasts up to three hours, with the mothers intermittently checking on the infant or juvenile. If the offspring is in distress, it may emit a distress call, to which the mother quickly responds (Charles-Dominique, 1977a). Independent locomotion and exploration begins at around 2 to 3 weeks of age and consumption of solid food usually begins at around one month of age, when the infant starts taking food from its mother's mouth (Charles-Dominique, 1977a). Males don't seem to directly care for young, although they may keep other males away through territorial defense. (Charles-Dominique, 1977a)
No long-term wild study of longevity in Gabon bushbabies has ever taken place, and specific information on lifespan is lacking. Other bushbabies have been documented living into their mid-teens (Ross, 1988). (Ross, 1988)
Bushbabies are commonly described as primarily solitary animals, although this may not necessarily be the case due to the difficulty of observing them in the wild. In a population of closely related Galago alleni, individuals have been observed in association with one to several conspecifics about half the time. Congregation is most commonly observed in the very early morning before dawn (Ambrose, 2003). It is likely that Gabon bushbabies locomote mainly through vertical cling-leaping, which is the process of leaping between vertical supports. Galago alleni engages in vertical cling leap locomotion, which allows for very efficient leaping between tree trunks (Charles-Dominique, 1977a). (Ambrose, 2003; Charles-Dominique, 1977a)
Data regarding the home range of Galago gabonensis is lacking. In the closely related Galago alleni, female ranges may overlap with one another and the ranges of males usually overlap with that of at least one female. Galago alleni male home ranges are large and may overlap with the ranges of more than 8 different females. Males are typically territorial of their home range towards other males (Charles-Dominique 1977a). (Charles-Dominique, 1977a)
The vocalizations of bushbabies (Galago species) have been divided into three categories: social contact calls, threat and distress calls, and attention and alarm calls (Charles-Dominique, 1977a). Great diversity exists between bushbaby species vocalizations and vocalizations of Gabon bushbabies have been described as croak calls. Croaks are used as calls between conspecifics over great distances and they are typically relatively short sequences (Grubb et al., 2003). (Charles-Dominique, 1977a; Grubb, et al., 2003)
Gabon bushbabies are omnivorous, eating primarily animal prey, fruit, and gums (Charles-Dominique, 1977a). Their animal prey consists mainly of arthropods. (Charles-Dominique, 1977a)
Potential predators of Gabon bushbabies include long-nosed mongooses (Herpestes naso) and crested genets (Genetta cristata) (Mzilikazi et al., 2006). Potential primate predators include grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Chimpanzees has been observed "fishing" for bushbabies by poking a large stick down a tree hole (Byrne, 2007). They are likely to also fall prey to forest raptors and arboreal snakes. Bushbabies are active at night, which lowers their risk of predation, and they are agile and alert. Their arboreal habits lowers their risk of predation as well. Bushbabies are generally cryptically colored. (Byrne, 2007; Milikazi, et al., 2006)
It is likely that Gabon bushbabies disperse seeds and help to regulate insect populations.
Gabon bushbabies are occasionally found at bushmeat markets, although they are not commonly hunted and consumed by humans. They are also occasionally sold as pets for human entertainment (Bowen-Jones & Pendry, 1999). (Bowen-Jones and Pendry, 1999)
There are no adverse effects of Galago gabonensis on humans.
Galago gabonensis is recognized as "least concern" by the IUCN under the name Sciurocheirus gabonensis. It is possible that the Gabon Bushbaby faces similar conservation challenges as G. alleni. Deforestation is currently the biggest threat to Gabon's tropical forests (Gron 2008). (Gron, 2008)
Carolynn Fitterer (author), Michigan State University, Pamela Rasmussen (editor, instructor), Michigan State University.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
uses sound to communicate
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
young are relatively well-developed when born
Ambrose, L. 2003. Three acoustic forms of Allen’s galagos (Primates; Galagonidae) in the Central African region. Primates, 44: 25-39.
Ankel-Simons, F. 2007. Primate Anatomy: an introduction. San Diego: Elsevier Acad Pr.
Barnes, R. 2008. Deforestation trends in tropical Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 28(3): 161-173.
Bowen-Jones, E., S. Pendry. 1999. The threat to primates and other mammals from the bushmeat trade in Africa, and how this threat could be diminished.. Oryx, 33(3): 233-46.
Byrne, R. 2007. Animal cognition: bring me my spear. Curr Biol, 17(5): 164-5.
Charles-Dominique, P. 1977a. Ecology and behavior of nocturnal primates: prosimians of equatorial West Africa. New York: Columbia U Pr.
Gron, K. 2008. "Primate Info Net" (On-line). Lesser bushbaby Galago sp. Accessed August 04, 2008 at http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/lesser_bushbaby/taxon.
Groves, C. 1989. A theory of primate and human evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Grubb, P., T. Butynski, J. Oates, S. Bearder, T. Disotell, C. Groves, T. Struhsaker. 2003. Assessment of the Diversity of African Primates. International Journal of Primatology, 24: 1301-1357.
Grzimek, B., N. Schlager, D. Olendorf, M. McDade. 2005. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Thomson Gale.
Kingdon, J. 2004. The Kingdon pocket guide to African mammals. Princeton, NY: Princeton U Pr.
Milikazi, N., J. Masters, B. Lovegrove. 2006. Lack of torpor in free-ranging southern lesser galagos, Galago moholi: ecological and physiological considerations. Folia Primatologica, 77: 465-476.
Ollivier, F., D. Samuelson, D. Brooks, M. Kallberg, A. Komaromy. 2004. Comparative morphology of the tapetum lucidum (among selected species). Vet Ophthalmol, 1: 11-22.
Pullen, S., S. Bearder, A. Dixson. 2000. Preliminary observations on sexual behavior and the mating system in free-ranging lesser galagos (Galago moholi).. Am J Primatol, 51(1): 79-88.
Ross, C. 1988. The intrinsic rate of natural increase and reproductive effort in primates. J Zool London, 214(2): 199-219.
Willamowius, J. 1999. "Map Generator" (On-line). Gabon Elevation Digital Map. Accessed August 04, 2008 at http://www.mapgenerator.us/shop/Maps-4865.html.