The eggs of Cyclops (Mueller, 1938). In the gut of the Cyclops, the ciliated epithelium is shed exposing the hooks on the cercomer (Mueller, 1938). The cercomer is the posterior adhesive organ. Through the use of its hooks, the larva penetrates the midgut wall and develops into an infective procercoid after 18 days (Mueller, 1938). The development of the procercoid causes the copepods to be more sluggish and therefore more susceptible to be eaten by a second intermediate host such as a frog, snake, or mammal (Mueller, 1936). When the Cyclops is eaten by an appropriate fish, the larva penetrates the wall of the gut and enters the muscles or connective tissues of the fish. In the muscles or connective tissues the procercoid larva transforms into the plerocercoid. The plerocercoid lacks hooks. It is during this stage that the bothria (longitudinal groves on the scolex) develops, but there is no strobilization. The plerocercoids may pass through several paratenic hosts. The infected intermediate host could then be eaten by its definitive host, the bobcat, or secondary definitive hosts: cat or dog (Mueller, 1936). Once eaten by the definitive host or secondary definitive host, plerocercoids penetrate the intestinal wall and take up residence in the muscles where they absorb nutrients (Mueller, 1938). (Mueller, 1936; Mueller, 1938)hatch between 9 to 120 days (Mueller, 1938). The coracidium or first larval stage exit the egg through the operculum or cap. During this stage, the coraciduim is ciliated and swims about in the water until it is ingested by a copepod, typically a species of
This species is a hermaphrodite.
Cestodes in general have sensory organs in the scolex, which are attached to longitudinal nerves extending down the body. The nerves are attached to organs and the cestodes can detect tactile stimulation.
Diphylobothrium mansonoides obtain food by absorbing nutrients from their host.
These parasites are likely not intentionally ingested. Larval mortality is high due to the parasites not reaching a definitive host.
This species uses copepods, fish and frogs intermediate hosts. Mammals are usually second definitive hosts.
Humans rarely become infected with the procercoid by accidentally eating the copepods. When this does occur, the procercoid migrates to subcutaneous tissue or muscles: the pleural cavity, abdominal viscera, urinary tract, scrotum, and the eye, where they develop into the plerocercoid. The human condition of having plerocercoid in the muscles and subcutaneous tissues is called sparganosis. Sparganosis is a very rare parasitic disease that produces chronic active inflammation in the brain. Possible routes of human infestation are as follows: 1) ingestion of water contaminated with copepods; 2) ingestion of raw second intermediate hosts, such as snake or frog; 3) topical application of a slice of raw meat to open wounds and mucous membranes; and 4) ingestion of the plerocercoid larvae through carriers. Symptoms include itching, hives and pain at the site where the nodules are developing. The treatment is usually surgical removal of the nodules containing the third stage larvae. (Dong, et al., 1996)
Renee Sherman Mulcrone (editor).
Susan Kais (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
Dong, G., H. Sun, K. Chang, K. Wang, H. Jung. 1996. Cerebral sparganosis: clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcome. Journal of Nerosurgery, 85: 1066-1071.
Jubilar, L. 1951. Spargana from the Florida alligator. Journal of Parasitology, 37: 317-318.
Mueller, J. 1935. A Diphyllobothrium from cats in dogs in the Syracuse region. Journal of Parasitology, 21: 114-120.
Mueller, J. 1932. A Diphyllobothrium from cats in the Syracuse region.. Journal of Parasitology, 19: 140-141.
Mueller, J. 1936. A repartition of the genus Diphyllobothrium. Journal of Parasitology, 22: 471-478.
Mueller, J. 1938. The life history of Diphyllobothrium mansonoides Mueller 1935, and some consideractions with regard to sparganosis in the United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 18: 41-56.
Mueller, J., E. Hart, W. Walsh. 1963. Human sparganosis in the United States. Journal of Parasitology, 49: 294-309.