Crematogaster cerasi, a species of acrobat ant, is native to the Nearctic region. It is found in southern Canada, throughout much of the United States, and into northern Mexico. In the United States, it ranges west to the Rocky Mountains and New Mexico, east to the eastern coastal states, and as far south as Florida. It is particularly common in the Midwest and in the northeastern states. (Johnson, 1988; Smith, 1965)
Crematogaster cerasi builds its nests primarily in trees such as under bark, in hollow stems, or other cavities, but also lives in logs and stumps or under leaf litter and stones. These ants also nest inside houses and other buildings, usually in tight spaces such as between shingles and in or around doors and windows. They are most common in forests, but can also be found in grasslands, pastures, bogs, and marshes. They are even occasionally found in mountain regions, as high as 2,350 m. In the southern portion of their range, they tend to live in drier, riparian habitats, while in the north they are more frequent in wetter woodlands and fields. (Ellis, et al., 2000; Jander, 1990; Johnson, 1988; Kannowski, 1959; Mackay and Mackay, 2003; Rice, 2013; Smith, 1965; Thompson, 1990)
Workers of Crematogaster cerasi are typically 2.6 to 4.0 mm in length. Queens are larger at 7.0 to 8.0 mm in length. These ants range from reddish-brown to dark brown to black in color. Ants of genus Crematogaster have unique heart shaped gasters, with the gaster flattened dorsally and convex ventrally. This genus has 11 segmented antennae, with 3 segmented antennal clubs. The dorsal face of the petiole is flattened, while the post-petiole has two lobes separated by a crevice, the post-petiole attaches to the dorsum of the gaster. While genus Crematogaster is reasonably easy to identify, especially due to the distinct gaster, individual species are more difficult to distinguish. Crematogaster cerasi can be distinguished from other Crematogaster species by one or two long, erect hairs on each corner of the pronotum. Males and reproductive females have wings, while workers do not. Queens lose their wings after mating. Larvae are 1.0 to 1.1 mm in length when they have first hatched and can grow to 1.9 mm long. The larval body is curved and segmented and the integument grows smooth when the larva nears molting. (Ellison, et al., 2012; Mackay and Mackay, 2003; Rice, 2013; Smith, 1965; Thompson, 1990; Wheeler and Wheeler, 1973)
Ants are holometabolous. Eggs hatch into larvae, which require significant care from the adults to survive. They then develop into pupae, which eventually develop into adults. For a short period time after the pupal stage, the adult ants are in a callow stage, where the ant is white in color, weak, and less active. Most offspring develop into female workers. Males and alate females are present in the nest in late summer. (Kannowski, 1959)
Mating takes place in late summer, after male and alate female broods hatch and develop in the nest. Adult reproductives are present starting in July. Nuptial flights occur from late July to early September. During the nuptial flights, swarms can occur, typically with males seeking out female mates. Females mate only once in their lives, with males dying shortly after mating. (Kannowski, 1959; Marshall, 2006)
After mating, the queens go out in search of a suitable location to begin a new colony. Queens often take shelter in abandoned beetle or termite galleries in branches of trees, as well as other locations, and they remove their wings. Some may overwinter before producing a brood, while others begin egg production soon after. Queens have a very high mortality rate at this point in their lives, with only a small fraction of mated females successfully founding colonies. The first batch of eggs develops into the first workers that tend the queen and future broods. When the colony is established, reproductive females and males are produced. Queens store sperm and lay eggs throughout their lives. Although the workers are female, they do not mate. Crematogaster colonies can last 10 to 15 years. Some reports suggest this species may be polygynous, with multiple queens per nest, as nests are often found with several dealate females. (Kannowski, 1959; Mackay and Mackay, 2003; Rice, 2013)
Female workers of Crematogaster cerasi invest significant care in the brood produced by the queen. Since the larvae and pupae are helpless and confined to the nest, the workers must tend them and supply food. Workers feed the brood via trophallaxis, which is the mouth to mouth regurgitation of food. Workers also protect the brood from potential threats. The beetle Fustiger knausii often lives in the nests of Crematogaster cerasi, and if any beetles are present near the brood, the workers ants remove them. (Leschen, 1991; Marshall, 2006)
Males live only a few weeks to a month, and die shortly after mating. While the specific lifespan is not available for Crematogaster cerasi, it is likely similar to many other ant species, with workers living several months. Colonies of Crematogaster can persist for more than 10 years, so queens likely live for several years. (Marshall, 2006; Rice, 2013)
Crematogaster cerasi forages for food both during the day and night. Workers mark trails with pheromones for their nest mates to follow. They move in lines, with one ant following another. This species is mainly arboreal, constructing their nests and doing much of their foraging within trees. These ants are not strictly arboreal and can nest in leaf litter, under stones, or in buildings. Their colonies can be enormous, with 10 thousand or more individuals. Ants of genus Crematogaster perform a distinctive behavior when disturbed, which gives them the common name 'acrobat ants'. They have significant flexibility in the connection between the thorax and gaster, allowing them to hold their gaster up over their head and body, and wave it in the air when alarmed. As a eusocial insect, Crematogaster cerasi has a division of labor between the workers and reproductives. The role of alate females and males is to mate, and then for the females to found new colonies and produce offspring. Workers tend to the brood, forage, and protect the nest. The workers of most Crematogaster species are monomorphic, though some are slightly polymorphic. While Crematogaster cerasi is not specifically mentioned in the literature, workers are likely monomorphic with no or little division of labor. (Ellis, et al., 2000; Ellison, et al., 2012; Marshall, 2006; Rice, 2013; Thompson, 1990)
There is currently no information available about the home range size of these ants.
Antennae are the main sensory organs of ants. They are used to detect chemicals and pheromones, to identify nest mates and reproductive mates, and also to feel the environment around them. Ants regularly groom their antennae to prevent buildup of chemicals and particles. Pheromones are an important method of communication between individuals. Crematogaster cerasi emits an alarm pheromone to alert its nest mates of a threat. Crematogaster ants also use trail pheromones to mark paths to food sources and other locations. Ants in this genus are unique, as the gland for trail chemicals is in their hind legs, not in their gaster. Most ants use the tip of their gaster to lay trail pheromones, but because of the unique shape of the Crematogaster gaster, they cannot put the tip of their gaster in contact with the ground. So instead, the gland is located in the hind legs, and the ants adopt a strange-looking run when marking the trail. (Boroczky, et al., 2013; Crewe, et al., 1972; Morgan, et al., 2004)
Crematogaster cerasi is omnivorous. Honeydew from insects such as aphids makes up a large portion of its diet, as well as nectar from extra floral nectaries. They also eat the edible parts of seeds. Crematogaster cerasi is also a predator. They prey on live insects and also scavenge dead insects. Ants that find their way inside homes and buildings readily eat whatever human foods they come across. (Beattie and Culver, 1981; Rice, 2013; Smith, 1965; Stephenson, 1981; Thompson, 1990)
In some forest habitats, Crematogaster cerasi can be one of the dominant ant species. It is a predator of other insects, and can serve as prey to a variety of other animals including spiders, birds, bears, and other insects. These ants likely have a minimal impact on seed dispersal. The ants transport seeds and eat the edible part, the elaiosome, and leave the rest, allowing the seed to germinate in a new location. These ants also form mutualistic relationships with honeydew excreting insects such as aphids and scale insects. In turn for eating the honeydew these insects produce, the ants provide care and protection from predators and parasitoids. Some of the aphid species they tend include Sipha flava, Aphis pomi, Aphis spiraecola, and Neoceruraphis viburnicola, as well as scale insects such as Eulecanium cerasorum and Neolecanium cornuparvum. Nests of acrobat ants are often inhabited by other organisms, forming commensal relationships, in which the ants are largely unaffected. The beetle Fustiger knausii is one species that can be found in the nests. The ants do not seem bothered by the beetles, though the workers will remove beetles if they are near the brood. Workers will groom the beetles, and vice versa. The beetles will also ride on the ants; the ants do not respond and appear unaffected. There has also been some evidence of trophallaxis between the species. Crickets of genus Myrmecophilus also often inhabit the nest, with no effect on the ants. There are also several species of phoretic mites that attach themselves to workers of C. cerasi and essentially hitch a ride to another location. The mites are not parasitic and the ants are not bothered. Crematogaster cerasi does have one recorded parasitoid species, phorid flies, the larvae of which develop inside the ant's head, eventually killing it. (Beattie and Culver, 1981; Bradshaw, et al., 2010; Campbell, et al., 2013; Ellis, et al., 2000; Ellison, et al., 2012; Leonard, 1971; Leschen, 1991; Rice, 2013; Smith, 1965; Steyskal, 1944; Vanek and Potter, 2010)
There are no known positive effects of Crematogaster cerasi on humans.
Crematogaster cerasi can be a household pest, and is especially common as a home invader in the northeastern United States. These ants have been known to live inside tight spaces within households and just outside buildings, venturing inside to feed on household foods. It does not appear to cause much damage, but can be a nuisance. They are described as strangely difficult to squish; those that are stepped on or hit seem merely stunned, before straightening themselves out and going back to work. Crematogaster cerasi is said to inflict a painful bite. It may also nest in wood that has been damaged by other species, and often enlarges the cavities a bit, causing more damage. Since it tends honeydew producing insects, many of which are crop pests, Crematogaster cerasi is often indirectly responsible for crop damage. Since it protects aphid populations and other pests from predators, it allows the pests to continue feeding. This species may be an intermediate host for the poultry tapeworm, Raillietina tetragona, as it has been observed carrying segments of tapeworm into its nest, which would then infect any bird that eats an infected ant. There has been little research conducted about this method of infection and it may not be a huge concern, but it has the possibility of causing domestic animal losses. (Bradshaw, et al., 2010; Marshall, 2006; Rice, 2013; Smith, 1965; Thompson, 1990)
Crematogaster cerasi has no special conservation status.
Crematogaster cerasi was formerly known as Crematogaster lineolata var. cerasi. It may also be referred to as the cherry ant, since it was first found tending aphids on a cherry tree. However, this name is not used with enough regularly to be considered this species' common name. (Ellison, et al., 2012; Gaddy, 1986)
Angela Miner (author), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Leila Siciliano Martina (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
used loosely to describe any group of organisms living together or in close proximity to each other - for example nesting shorebirds that live in large colonies. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits (a continuous, modular society) - as in clonal organisms.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
the condition in which individuals in a group display each of the following three traits: cooperative care of young; some individuals in the group give up reproduction and specialize in care of young; overlap of at least two generations of life stages capable of contributing to colony labor
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5? N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
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