Spotted-winged fruit bats are native to Thailand, Malaysia, and Borneo. (Corbert and Hill, 1980)
Spotted-winged fruit bats prefer forests, lowlands, or foothills, and are commonly found in and around Eastern Asia. (Anderson and Jones , 1984)
Balionycteris maculata can grow to be about 50 to 66 mm in length, and can weigh up to 14.5 g. They have no external tail, a short nose, and the length of their forearm ranges from 39 to 43 mm. (Nowak, 1999)
These fruit bats have unique dentition, in that they only have one pair of lower incisors.
The only other bat with which this species could be confused is Chironax melanocephalus, or black-capped fruit bats. These two species which share similar external characteristics, although the latter is slightly smaller, differs in dental characters, and lacks spots on the wings. (Nowak, 1999)
No information was found on mating systems.
Data on the reproductive characteristics of this species are lacking. However, it is likely that B. maculata is similar to other temperate/tropical fruit bats.
Most fruit bats reach puberty in the second year after birth. Copulation is accomplished while suspended by the hind legs in the roost. Females can produce 1 to 2 young per year, although typically only give birth to one young at a time. Fruit bats are known to breed throughout the year, with young being born every month of the year. Delayed implantation may occur. (Anderson and Jones , 1984; Anderson and Jones , 1984)
Parental care in this species has not been documented. However, as mammals, females of this species are known to provide their young with milk and protection. The mother probably also grooms her offspring, and cares for them while they reach maturity. The role of males in parental care has not been established. (Nowak, 1999)
Although mostly nocturnal, some of these bats have been seen during the day. They are generally tree-dwelling, although have been seen in the limestone caverns in Sabah. They generally roost in groups of more than 10. (Anderson and Jones , 1984)
Spotted-winged fruit bats are homoeothermic, and rectal tests have shown temperatures ranging from 31 to 37 degrees Celsius. These bats have shortened jaws and a powerful bite for eating fruit. Along with both of their powerful bite, their canines are well developed. The bats locate food by smellas well as by sight. Most do not have a well-developed echolocation. (Anderson and Jones , 1984)
Some bats migrate seasonally to find fruit, although there are no details on such behavior available for B. maculata. These bats are relatively slow flyers, and hibernation has been reported. (Anderson and Jones , 1984; Harrison, 1974; Nowak, 1999)
The size of the home range of this species has not been reported.
Balionycteris maculata uses a variety of postures in communciation, as well as a number of noises. These bats are reported to be very vocal. It is likely that tactile communication is important in the roost, between mates, rival, and between parents and their offspring. The role of scent cues in communication in this species has not been documented, but is probably at least minimally important. (Anderson and Jones , 1984)
As the common name suggests, this mammal is frugivorous, primarily feeding on fruit, pollen, and nectar. Balionycteris maculata consumes fruit by utilizing the juices and spitting out the fibers. It has been reported that this animal also feeds on insects. (Anderson and Jones , 1984)
Predators of this species have not been reported.
These bats are frugivores and may be important in seed dispersal. (Nowak, 1999)
There is no information avaiable suggesting any positive economic impact of these animals on humans.
From what I have gathered there has not been a special status that has been placed on this mammal.
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Ryan Rubbelke (author), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Chris Yahnke (editor, instructor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
uses sound to communicate
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
in mammals, a condition in which a fertilized egg reaches the uterus but delays its implantation in the uterine lining, sometimes for several months.
The process by which an animal locates itself with respect to other animals and objects by emitting sound waves and sensing the pattern of the reflected sound waves.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
animals that live only on an island or set of islands.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sound above the range of human hearing for either navigation or communication or both
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
Anderson, S., J. Jones . 1984. Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. New York: The American Society of Mammalogists.
Corbert, G., J. Hill. 1980. A World List of Mammalian Species. Britain: British Museum.
Harrison, J. 1974. An Introduction to Mammals of Singapore and Malaya. Singapore: Singapore Branch Malayan Nature Society.
Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.