The cylindrical papershell is found in the mid to upper Mississippi River, the St. Lawrence River and in the Great Lakes. In the Canadian Interior Basin it occurs in the Albany River system and areas drained by the Nelson River, and is also found in the Ottawa River. In general its range extends as far south as Tennessee and Arkansas, as far west as Colorado, and as far north as Manitoba.
The cylindrical papershell is up to 7.6 cm (3 inches) long , and is elongate and elliptical. The shell is usually fairly thin and inflated. The anterior end is rounded, the posterior end bluntly pointed. The dorsal margin is straight to slightly curved and the ventral margin is slightly rounded, a slight arch, or “pinch” in the middle.
Umbos are low, raised only slightly above the hinge line. The beak sculpture has three or four very fine V shaped ridges.
The periostracum (outer shell layer) is light green to yellowish-brown. Beaks are generally lighter. Older specimens tend to be more brown.
On the inner shell, both the left and right valve lack pseudocardinal teeth but have swellings on the hinge line beneath the beaks. Lateral teeth are also absent.
The beak cavity is shallow. The nacre is silvery or bluish white and iridescent at the posterior end.
In Michigan, this species can be confused with the creeper, paper pondshell or giant floater. In general, A. ferussacianus is more cylindrical than the other species, and has a “pinch” in the middle of the ventral margin. The paper pondshell has distinctly flat umbos. The creeper in general is larger, has a slightly more blunt posterior end, and is slightly more compressed. (Cummings and Mayer, 1992; Oesch, 1984; Watters, 1995a)
Fertilized eggs are brooded in the marsupia (water tubes) up to 11 months, where they develop into larvae, called glochidia. The glochidia are then released into the water where they must attach to the gill filaments and/or general body surface of the host fish. After attachment, epithelial tissue from the host fish grows over and encapsulates a glochidium, usually within a few hours. The glochidia then metamorphoses into a juvenile mussel within a few days or weeks. After metamorphosis, the juvenile is sloughed off as a free-living organism. Juveniles are found in the substrate where they develop into adults. (Arey, 1921; Lefevre and Curtis, 1910)
Age to sexual maturity for this species is unknown. Unionids are gonochoristic (sexes are separate) and viviparous. The glochidia, which are the larval stage of the mussels, are released live from the female after they are fully developed.
In general, gametogenesis in unionids is initiated by increasing water temperatures. The general life cycle of a unionid, includes open fertilization. Males release sperm into the water, which is taken in by the females through their respiratory current. The eggs are internally fertilized in the suprabranchial chambers, then pass into water tubes of the gills, where they develop into glochidia.
In the Huron River, A. ferussacianus was gravid from early August to late May of the following year. It likely spawns in June and July. (Lefevre and Curtis, 1912; van der Schalie, 1938; Watters, 1995a)
Females brood fertilized eggs in their marsupial pouch. The fertilized eggs develop into glochidia. There is no parental investment after the female releases the glochidia.
The age of mussels can be determined by looking at annual rings on the shell. However, no demographic data on this species has been recorded.
Mussels in general are rather sedentary, although they may move in response to changing water levels and conditions. Although not thoroughly documented, the mussels may vertically migrate to release glochidia and spawn. (Oesch, 1984; Watters, 1995a)
The middle lobe of the mantle edge has most of a bivalve's sensory organs. Paired statocysts, which are fluid filled chambers with a solid granule or pellet (a statolity) are in the mussel's foot. The statocysts help the mussel with georeception, or orientation.
Mussels are heterothermic, and therefore are sensitive and responsive to temperature.
Unionids in general may have some form of chemical reception to recognize fish hosts. How the cylindrical papershell attracts or if it recognizes its fish host is unknown.
Glochidia respond to both touch, light and some chemical cues. In general, when touched or a fluid is introduced, they will respond by clamping shut. (Arey, 1921; Brusca and Brusca, 2003; Watters, 1995a)
In general, unionids are filter feeders. The mussels use cilia to pump water into the incurrent siphon where food is caught in a mucus lining in the demibranchs. Particles are sorted by the labial palps and then directed to the mouth. Mussels have been cultured on algae, but they may also ingest bacteria, protozoans and other organic particles.
The parasitic glochidial stage absorbs blood and nutrients from hosts after attachment. Mantle cells within the glochidia feed off of the host’s tissue through phagocytocis. (Arey, 1921; Meglitsch and Schram, 1991; Watters, 1995a)
Unionids in general are preyed upon by muskrats, raccoons, minks, otters, and some birds. Juveniles are probably also fed upon by freshwater drum, sheepshead, lake sturgeon, spotted suckers, redhorses, and pumpkinseeds.
Unionid mortality and reproduction is affected by unionicolid mites and monogenic trematodes feeding on gill and mantle tissue. Parasitic chironomid larvae may destroy up to half the mussel gill. (Cummings and Mayer, 1992; Watters, 1995a)
Fish hosts are determined by looking at both lab metamorphosis and natural infestations. Looking at both is necessary, as lab transformations from glochidia to juvenile may occur, but the mussel may not actually infect a particular species in a natural situation. Natural infestations may also be found, but glochidia will attach to almost any fish, including those that are not suitable hosts. Lab transformations involve isolating one particular fish species and introducing glochidia either into the fish tank or directly inoculating the fish gills with glochidia. Tanks are monitored and if juveniles are later found the fish species is considered a suitable host.
Lab transformations have been observed in the bluegill, black crappie, largemouth bass, spotfin shiner and the Tippecanoe darter. (Cummings and Watters, 2004; Hove, et al., 1995; Hove, et al., 1997; O'Dee and Watters, 2000; Watters, 1995b)
Mussels are ecological indicators. Their presence in a water body usually indicates good water quality.
There are no significant negative impacts of mussels on humans.
The cylindrical papershell is listed as endangered in Vermont and threatened in Iowa. (Hove, 2004)
Renee Sherman Mulcrone (author).
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
an animal that mainly eats decomposed plants and/or animals
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton; mainly unicellular algae. (Compare to zooplankton.)
an animal that mainly eats plankton
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Arey, L. 1921. An experimental study on glochidia and the factors underlying encystment. J. Exp. Zool., 33: 463-499.
Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
Burch, J. 1975. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Hamburg, Michigan: Malacological Publications.
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Graf, D. 2002. Historical biogeography and late glacial origin of the freshwater pearly mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) faunas of Lake Erie, North America. Occasional Papers of Mollusks, 6: 175-211.
Haag, W., M. Warren. 1997. Host fishes and reproductive biology of six freshwater mussel species from the Mobile Basin, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 16: 576-585.
Hoeh, W., R. Trdan. 1985. Freshwater mussels (Pelecypoda: Unionidae) of the major tributaries of the St. Clair River, Michigan. Malacological Review, 18: 115-116.
Hove, M. 2004. "Links to each state's listed freshwater mussels, invertebrates, or fauna" (On-line). Accessed September 21, 2005 at http://www.fw.umn.edu/Personnel/staff/Hove/State.TE.mussels.
Hove, M., R. Engelking, E. Long, M. Peteler, E. Peterson. 1995. Anodontoides ferussacianus and Anodonta imbecillis host suitability tests. Triannual Unionid Report, 6: 1.
Hove, M., R. Engelking, M. Peteler, E. Peterson, Kapuscinski, A.R., Sovell, L.A. and E.R. Evers. 1997. Suitable fish hosts for glochidia of four freshwater mussels. Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels II. Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, 16-18 October 1995, St. Louis, Missouri: 21-25. Accessed October 04, 2005 at http://ellipse.inhs.uiuc.edu/FMCS/Meetings/Symp1995Abs.html.
Lefevre, G., W. Curtis. 1912. Experiments in the artificial propagation of fresh-water mussels. Proc. Internat. Fishery Congress, Washington. Bull. Bur. Fisheries, 28: 617-626.
Lefevre, G., W. Curtis. 1910. Reproduction and parasitism in the Unionidae. J. Expt. Biol., 9: 79-115.
Meglitsch, P., F. Schram. 1991. Invertebrate Zoology, Third Edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.
O'Dee, S., G. Watters. 2000. New or confirmed host identifications for ten freshwater mussels. Conservation, Captive Care, and Propagation of Freshwater Mussels Symposium, Columbus, Ohio, 1998: 77-82.
Oesch, R. 1984. Missouri naiades, a guide to the mussels of Missouri. Jefferson City, Missouri: Missouri Department of Conservation.
Watters, G. 1995. A guide to the freshwater mussels of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
Watters, G. 1995. New hosts for Anodontoides ferussacianus (Lea, 1834). Triannual Unionid Report, 7: 7. Accessed October 04, 2005 at http://ellipse.inhs.uiuc.edu/FMCS/TUR/TUR7.html#p9.
van der Schalie, H. 1938. The naiad fauna of the Huron River, in southeastern Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 40: 1-83.